What factors support and promote home-based food-growing in four neighbourhoods in SW Sheffield?

Monday, 4 May 2009

Appendices #6 -#12

#6 Sample from Questionnaire Data Sheet
Q18 - currently growing
of the 23 who don’t grow any food items, 3 didn’t respond, 15 are in 30k or under bracket, 2 are in 31 to 50k bracket, 3 are in 51k or higher bracket.
Of the 12 who grow 1 food item, 1 didn’t respond, 9 are in 30k or under bracket, 1 is in 31 to 50k bracket, 1 is in 51k or higher bracket.
Of 9 who grow 2 food items, 2 didn’t respond, 3 are in 30k or under bracket, 2 are in 31 to 50k bracket, 2 are in 51k or higher bracket.
Of 10 who grow 3 food items, 1 didn’t respond, 4 are in 30k or under bracket, 5 are in 31 to 50k bracket.
Of 14 who grow 4 food items, 3 didn’t respond, 6 are in 30k or under bracket, 5 are in 51 or higher bracket.
So of the 45 who grow 1 or more food items 8 are in 51k bracket or higher, 8 are in 31 to 50k bracket, 22 are in 30k or under bracket.
In Neighborhood #4 every household growing less than two of the food categories (4)purchased 30% or less of their food as organic, 2 of which purchased none, ed quals from GCSE up to first degree.
Those in Neighborhood #4 who purchase 60% organic or higher (4) are growing at least 2 food categories with 3 of the 4 growing 3 categories and 2 growing all 4 categories,
however 3 others in Neighborhood #4 growing at least 3 categories only purchase 15% organic. All 4 who purchase at least 60% organic only purchase 45% or less local, all 4 cook from fresh at least 60% of the time with 3 of the 4 at 90% or higher fresh cook. All 4 expressed #3 quite a bit or higher on Q’s 7-11, 3 of the 4 @ 5- hugely or higher on climate change, 3 of the 4 @ 4-very much or 5-hugely on Peak oil, 3 of the 4@ 5-hugely on energy prices, only 2 @ 4-very much or higher on food supply, only 1@ 4 very much on food prices. All 4 have first degrees or higher and 3 of the 4 have at least 1 full time worker in the house. All 4 practice at least 2 of the energy efficiency measures w/3 practicing at least 4. 3 garden organically, all compost and practice soil improvement, 3 RWH. All have watched a gardening program and read a book about gardening, 3 have been to the city farm, only 2 have ever had a gardening mentor, researched on the internet or attended a gardening class (same 2), all have some experience with allotments. None smoke, all are careful about nutrition, 3 exercise at least 3 times/week, 2 have 1-2 drinks/week and 1 has 1-2 drinks /day. They all grow because they have land/sun and they like gardening, 3 want the freshest produce, grow because it is therapeutic. 2 didn’t indicate they would grow more for any reason. The other 2 would grow more if they had more time. None indicated willingness to allow others to grow in their yard.

#7 Categorisation of Interview Questions and Responses
A. Involvement in community
How long have you lived in this neighborhood?
How well do you know your neighbors? any that grow food?
Are you familiar with any neighborhood community activism since you have lived here?
Would you participate in neighborhood growing?
Would you be interested in gardening in someone else’s yard?
Would you allow others to grow food in your garden?

B. Food stress
What percentage of your income do you spend on food?
Do you have the flexibility in your budget to handle rising food prices?
Concern for food security.
Concern for Peak Oil and Climate change.
What impact you think PO and CC will have on your neighborhood’s food security?

C. Gardening/food rationale
If sourcing local food was easier and/or cheaper would you do more of it?
You indicated that you never shop for local food? why?
If there was local farmers market or green grocer would you shop there?
Rationale for sourcing organic food.
Why do you plan meals?
Why do you cook from fresh so much?
What would be the primary reason for you to grow food?
Do you garden organically? why or why not?

D. Extent of gardening
What is preventing you from getting an allotment?
You indicated you are on a waiting list for an allotment, how much do you value getting another one?
How do your allotments work with your household growing?
You gave up an allotment, why?

E. Gardening interest
Is gardening a skill you’d spend time perfecting?
Is there a history, that you remember, of food growing in your family?
As an active grower, have you seen any evidence of an increase in growing since you’ve been growing here?
Have your own growing activities changed since your neighbors started growing food?

F. Personal limitations to gardening
Do you own this property?
Is your landlord amenable to your gardening?
Do you feel it’s possible to save money by growing any of your own food here?
Are you concerned about soil contamination? Do you know how to test for it?
You indicated that you have tested your soil? For what and how did you do it?
Is time a limiting factor to your gardening?
Are food prices limiting your gardening?
You indicated there aren’t really any limitations on your food growing, is that because you feel you are doing all you need to do or all that is possible?

G. Gardening support availed
What value was your visit to a city farm? What should a CF offer?
What has been of the most value to you in learning about gardening?
Can you recommend a gardening book or website?
Do you know of an individual who provides good advice?
What gardening class did you attend?

H. Gardening support needed
What is the format for a free gardening class for you to take?
How would you like to access free advice?
Do you feel support for personal food growing is an issue of children’s health?
In general what should the local council do to foster and support food security?
What should national government do to foster and support food security?
What is the most valuable thing that could be offered to you to support your own food growing?

#8 Sample from Interview Analysis Document
How well do you know your neighbors? any that grow food?

“I know immediate neighbours and the other house is rented and I know them to say hello to. On the road, quite a few people. ” interview 01 No, oh not this year.” interview 01
“Not very well. ” interview 06
“One side very well, my partner, other side not very well at all...” interview 07
“Not at all. I put a screen up bc I found it a bit exposed; we chatted over the fence until then. Are they the only ones to grow food? Yes. The other two are overgrown. ” interview 09
“Some well, others I could pass in the street and wouldn’t have a clue if...anyone below I recognise and anyone above I don’t know.” interview 10
“Not very well, medium well. Strawberry next door.” interview 17
“We have just moved in. We don’t have any. We know two doors down to say hi. No. ” interview 20
“Not too well. … the woman on the end has a whole stack of things, number 21.” interview 28
Not well, No, just flowers; I imagine some will grow tomatoes. ” interview 29

“Yeah quite a lot of them. … of the people that we know 90%. (I would say 50%) Well maybe 75% then.” interview 02
“My immediate ones just say hi and pass the time of day a little bit, not close friends. but I have people in the neighbourhood I am close friends with; they grow food. ” interview 12
“I feel rooted here; I know people. Most to say hello to by name; I do cultivate that. Yes, … ” interview 13
“40%, no 70%. There are a lot of people who grow food. Next door gave us some apples; he is always growing stuff. ” interview 24

“I know a lot of neighbours well. The woman over the road is creating a veg patch.” interview 03
“Pretty well, they are very friendly. Half of them at least do.” interview 04
“Very well. Yes. Half grow at least something. 10 yrs ago I used to grow onions, potatoes, leeks, salads, my relationship broke down, I was socialising...nesting. ” interview 11
“Quite well.” interview 19
“Better here than anywhere else we’ve ever lived bc of this community. Next door. The gardens get shorter, ours is the last of the long gardens. ” interview 21
“Either side really well, but the rest much less than any time since I’ve been here. I know one guy across the road. 10 yrs ago I knew everybody really well but they have moved; my job is the problem, I’m away.
“All of them. ” interview 25

“Not as well as I’d like to . By name. My husband knows one neighbour better than I do. My mother-in-law lives round the corner. Yes the Bengali neighbour grows spinach and mustard leaves and marrow. ” interview 05
“ ...We know the kids and they are fantastic, brilliant. ...A lot of the Asian community round ‘ere have this wonderful lorry that comes on Thursdays full of veg and they buy in bulk. They don’t have back yards, space. The Asian, Chinese and Turkish people round here don’t have time to grow bc they work so hard. Shops, taxis. They eat far better food than white British anyway. … We will get the children in here and say this is how you grow something. … There is such a huge turnover of people within flats. … The flats up the road unfortunately there is a mishmash of other problems, disfunctional, damaged in some way. There is no way we are going to reach out to them to grow veg; it is just not going to happen; unless they go to prison; it is very sad.” interview 08
“Very well, all of them. 10%. Space is a big thing. Some others I don’t know too well are growing as well, probably a bit higher. That is excluding herb growers.” interview 14
“Not very well. One barrier is language; it is a diverse area, and I only speak English. I do talk to people of the same ethnic group as me. No there area has not got big enough gardens.” interview 15
“There is a little lot of us around here that know each other fairly well, but broadening out, not so well. Next door 50 yrs, Next door but one and next door has peppers. ” interview 16
“Not very well at all. A little, not very much.” interview 18
“One side well, other not well. A couple of other who I say hello to. No.” interview 22
“No, I’m a bit shy. I don’t . ” interview 26

#9 From the Sheffield City Council website
Contaminated Land - The Environmental Protection Act 1990 http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/index.asp?pgid=134447&ratingsReturnMessage=success
“The Environmental Protection Service is responsible for implementing Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and has a dedicated Contaminated Land Officer to undertake this role. … In accordance with Part IIA, Sheffield produced a Contaminated Land Inspection Strategy in 2001 which has been periodically reviewed and is currently being revised. Part IIA only deals with land which in it's current use has the potential to cause 'significant harm' to human health, specified plants and animals, specified buildings and property and the water environment. The legislation also requires that we compile and maintain a register of contaminated land. This register only includes details of land where formal action has been taken - it does not include details of every site in Sheffield.”

Development on Land Potentially Affected by Contamination http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/environment/environmental-health/pollution/land-pollution/contaminated-land/development
“It is government policy that most land affected by the presence of contamination will be dealt with during the planning process. For planning purposes land contamination has a wider meaning. For any new development the developer is responsible for identifying potential risks to future occupiers of the site. … The actual or possible presence of contamination is a material planning consideration. In many cases it will be an advantage to determine whether there are likely to be any contamination issues on site before submitting an application for planning consent. This may involve a basic historical land use search and site walk over. On large scale developments it could form part of a pre-application enquiry where any necessary investigations can be determined prior to submitting a planning application. … We are mainly concerned with risks to human health and ensuring that the proposed development will be suitable for use.”
The Site Investigation Procedure - General Advice for Developers http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/environment/environmental-health/pollution/land-pollution/contaminated-land/development/site-investigation
“The site investigation procedure needs to identify the potential for contamination and identify possible areas that may require remedial works in order to make a site suitable for use. … The site investigation should be done in phases in order that resources are appropriately targeted.
* the Phase 1 investigation should establish whether there have been any former contaminative uses on the site or adjacent properties which could impact upon the development. The Phase 1 should include a preliminary conceptual site model.
* the Phase 2 investigation should determine the nature, extent and severity of contamination using risk based criteria. It should provide details of remedial options, health and safety issues, potential impacts on the environment and a detailed work plan. It should assess the risks to human health, controlled waters and the wider environment.
* the Phase 3 Remediation Method Statement should provide details of proposed remedial options, health and safety issues and a detailed remediation strategy.
* the Post Remediation Validation Report should provide a summary of remedial works carried out together with relevant documentary evidence and post remediation test results.
The site investigation procedure involves specialist technical knowledge and it is essential that all phases of the site investigation procedure are conducted by competent and experienced people (who should hold recognised and appropriate qualifications). … In the past we have received reports submitted on behalf of developers, which have not used a proper scientific or appropriate sampling strategy in order to assess risks from land contamination. It is essential that developers conduct their site investigations in accordance with current good practice.
Examples of current good practice can be found in the following documents:
* Model Procedures for the Management of Land Contamination, Contaminated Land Report 11, Environment Agency 2004
* BS 10175:2001 British Standard Institute (2001) Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Sites- Code of Practice, British Standard Institute. London.
* Environment Agency (2001) Secondary Model Procedure for the Development of Appropriate Soil Sampling Strategies for Land Contamination. R&D Technical Report P5-066/TR. Water Research Centre, Swindon
* Environment Agency (2000) Technical Aspects of Site Investigation (2 Vols.) Research and Development Technical Report P5-065/TR. Water Research Centre, Swindon
* Environment Agency (2000) Guidance for the Safe Development of Housing on Land Affected by Contamination. The Stationary Office. London

#10 The Boston Globe Contamination Article
Beth Daley (2008) Boston Globe Lead may lurk in backyard gardens http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/08/11/lead_may_lurk_in_backyard_gardens/?page=full
“Having lead doesn't have to mean no garden, however. Environmental and health officials say if you live in an urban area, first pick a place for a garden away from the house. If that soil tests high for lead, build a raised bed and place clean soil in it. People do need to monitor raised beds because they can become contaminated by windblown lead dust, said Dan Brabander, a geochemist at Wellesley College. Gardeners should also plant fruiting crops such as tomatoes, squash, peas, and corn because they take up relatively little lead. At the same time, people should avoid planting root vegetables, potatoes, and leafy vegetables, which take up more. Gardeners should also use mulch, which keeps the lead-contaminated soil contained.
"People need to be careful, be prudent," said Carol Rowan-West, director of the state Department of Environmental Protection's Office & Research and Standards. "They need to have their soil tested."
Some scientists and homeowners try other methods. Brabander and The Food Project experimented several years ago with planting mustard greens and other plants that take up large amounts of lead to see if they could rid soil of lead. While it could theoretically work, cleaning a small garden plot could take decades, Brabander said. Sam Fogel, a Newton microbiologist and avid gardener, said phosphate spread over soil can bind with lead and make it unavailable for plants to take up. The phosphate must be thoroughly mixed into the 6- to 8-inch soil depth. Gardeners can retest their soil after spreading phosphate to see if it is truly binding.”

#11 Chemical Cocktails
For more about how contaminants interact and how those interactions are interpreted see a document labeled “tox200719.pdf” and available for download at the Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment website http://cot.food.gov.uk/pdfs/tox200719.pdf

#12 Resource Pamphlet
Soil testing labs
Paul Armitage - Technical Sales
General : 01244528700
Direct : 01244528727
FAX : 01244528769
ALcontrol Laboratories
Units 7-8 Hawarden Business Park
Manor Road (off Manor Lane)

Lancrop Laboratories
Manor Place, Wellington Road,
Pocklington, York,
YO42 1DN
Tel: 01759 305116
www.lancrop.com Dr Sarah Pitcher
NRM Laboratories
Contaminated Land Analysis
DD: 01344 899034
Tel: 01344 886338
Fax:01344 890972

Voelcker Consultants
Analytical and Consulting Chemists,
380 Bollo Lane,
Acton, London
W3 8QU
Tel: 020 8993 2421

Sheffield council compost bins - http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/env/waste/gardenwaste/compostbins

Sheffield Organic Food Initiative - http://www.organic-guru.co.uk/

Garden Organic - http://www.gardenorganic.org.uk/
Ryton, Coventry
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 (0) 24 7630 3517
Fax: +44 (0) 24 7663 9229
Email: enquiry@gardenorganic.org.uk

Grow Sheffield - http://www.growsheffield.com/
email: grow@growsheffield.com
tel: 0114 258 0784
the old junior school
southview road
sheffield s7 1db

Heeley City Farm - http://www.heeleyfarm.org.uk/
Richards Road
S2 3DT
Tel: (0114) 258 0482
Fax: (0114) 255 1400

Low Impact Living Initiative - http://www.lowimpact.org/venues_north.htm
email (preferred): lili@lowimpact.org
telephone / fax: +44 (0)1296 714184
Redfield Community
Winslow, Bucks
MK18 3LZ

Permaculture Association - http://www.permaculture.org.uk/
Hollybush Conservation Centre
Broad Lane, Kirkstall
Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS5 3BP.
Email: office@permaculture.org.uk

Royal Horticultural Society - free advice to members
80 Vincent Square
Telephone 0845 260 5000

Sheffield Organic Food Initiative - http://www.organic-guru.co.uk/
e-mail: richard@organic-guru.co.uk
Telephone: 0114 2686727
Snail mail: 41 B Burns Road
Sheffield S6 3GL

Soil Association - apprenticeship scheme in organic gardening. http://www.soilassociation.org/apprentice
South Plaza, Marlborough Street, Bristol BS1 3NX
T: 0117 314 5000
F: 0117 314 5001
E: ff@soilassociation.org

Whirlow Farm - http://www.whirlowhallfarm.co.uk/
Education Department
tel : +44 (0)114 236 0096
email : educationenquiries@whirlowhallfarm.org


All about Compost by Pauline Pears & Charlotte Green.

Composting with Worms by George Pilkington

Grow Organic - part of Dorling Kindersley's Made With Care range of books.

HDRA Encyclopedia of Organic Gardening

Managing Soil Without Chemicals by Jo Readman

Organic Vegetable Planning Guide - full colour poster, B2 Size (72 x 52 cm)

Pests: How to Control Them by Pauline Pears & Bob Sherman -

Square Foot Gardening by Mel Bartholomew

The Organic Gardener's Handbook by Michael Littlewood

The Vegetable and Herb Expert by Dr. Hessayon


Seedy Sunday: Seed Swaps across the UK and valuable information on how to save seeds etc: http://www.seedysunday.org


Julian Brandram. local expert on fruit trees and soft fruit offering advice and trees for sale suited to the region http://www.appletrees.org.uk/


Sheffield forum allotment and gardening group http://www.sheffieldforum.co.uk/archive/index.php/f-86.html

The National Society of Allotment and Leisure Gardeners Ltd - http://www.nsalg.org.uk/
O’Dell House,
Hunters Road,
NN17 5JE
Tel: 01536 266576

The Allotments Regeneration Initiative - ARI http://www.farmgarden.org.uk/ari/

Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens http://www.farmgarden.org.uk/
A charity which supports and represents community gardens and city farms throughout the UK.

BBC - Gardening http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/

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